A written document sworn on oath before a person with authority to administer it. The
‘Appellate jurisdiction’ is the authority of a court to deal with appeals that relate to
The standard of proof (q.v.) required in civil law (q.v.) cases, i.e. it is more
Community Based Order (CBO) is a sentencing order, as an alternative to imprisonment, requiring a
A set of guidelines for fair practice developed for a specific industry or occupation. May
A sentence that is served partly in prison and partly in the community undergoing supervised
The part of English law traditionally based on common custom and being unwritten. Law which
A person who begins a prosecution against another in the Magistrates’ Court, a plaintiff.
Process of resolving disputes which involves negotiations between parties, assisted by a conciliator. Conciliation aims
Protection against disclosure to an outside person of information revealed in a professional relationship, e.g.
A situation where a person’s own interests, or a duty towards someone else, may affect
A preliminary hearing in criminal cases where parties can try to reach agreement on some
The rights belonging to the owner or licensee of literary, artistic and dramatic works, films
Publication of false and derogatory statements about another person, without any justification recognised by law.
Giving particular information to another party as required by a contract or legal process.
A procedure by which documents relevant to a civil (q.v.) action are exchanged between the
A framework, set of rules, procedural steps, or test, often established through precedent (q.v.) in
Questioning of a witness in court by the party that called that witness, c.f. cross-examination.
Examination of the body of a person suspected of having committed an offence, or the
A not-for-profit community organisation with a separate legal identity and a structure regulated by legislation.
The document that lists the charges against the accused in County or Supreme Court proceedings.
A person who lays an information, i.e. a criminal charge (q.v.). Usually a police officer.
Agreement given for something to be done, after the procedure has been fully explained so
Notice showing that an offence (usually a driving offence) has been committed and the penalty
The asking of questions. In criminal cases, the questioning of suspects by police. In civil
Legal responsibility, e.g. for breaking a contract, committing a crime. It may be civil (q.v.)
Court proceedings in civil matters (q.v.). A litigant is one of the opposing parties (q.v.)
Laws made and enforced by municipal councils within their boundaries. Previously called by-laws.
Having to be strictly complied with. Mandatory reporting: obligation to report, e.g. cases of abuse
Form of dispute resolution where an impartial third party helps communication and negotiations between the
Circumstances which go towards reducing the damages or punishment which the court may order against
A transfer of real property (land) or personal property (goods) as security for the repayment
A sentence for a criminal offence (q.v.) which does not involve imprisonment.
A public official appointed to investigate citizens’ complaints against the administrative agencies of government, or
‘Original jurisdiction’ gives a court authority to hear a case first. This means that if
The person highest on a designated list who is available and able to make decisions
Person who initiates legal proceedings against another in a civil dispute (c.f. complainant).
Written or printed statements delivered by parties to one another so questions of fact and
A non-custodial sentencing order (q.v.) that involves good behaviour and supervision by a probation officer
Person appointed to act on behalf of an incorporated association in any public dealings.
In prosecutions for many drug offences, once the prosecution has presented certain matters of proof
An indictable offence (q.v.) for which the penalty is imprisonment for five years or more,
In relation to transport injuries, a serious long-term impairment, disfigurement or loss of a body
A conviction for a minor criminal offence, which after a certain time without re-offending, is
A written statement of facts which the person making it signs and solemnly declares to
A ground for defence included in a particular law which would prevent a person from
A sentence of imprisonment which is only served if the convicted person commits further offences.
Wrongful entry onto or interference with a property without the permission of the lawful owner
Person who makes a complaint about illegal or inappropriate actions of their employer.